Burn Rate

To Learn A Language

Ah programming languages. They’re a common subject of inquery: What language should I learn? How do I rate my language knowledge? How easy is it to learn a new language? They’re used as requirements on job postings, as credentials on a resume and to maybe write some code every so often.

Let’s dive into the process of learning a new language, from syntax to full fluency.

Quantifying Learning

There’s an often echoed sentiment that programming languages, past the first or second one, are all the same and easy to learn. I don’t think this is wholly inaccurate, but I do find this a vast oversimplification. For one, it breezes over what it means to learn a language.

Learning a language can mean extremely different things depending on your general level of experience, who you’re speaking with, and the language itself. For instance, if you’re a student, I think it’s perfectly acceptable to claim that you know a language if you’ve taken a course or two in it and written a few programs in it. Most likely people aren’t going to ask a student in college the ins and outs of Java generic variance. If they do, that’s on them. However a professional developer should probably have at least a few months worth of full time, professional experience in a language before they claim proficiency.

This means that as you progress in your career, you may actually put less languages down on your resume.

The language also matters. Python and Java show up on practically every student’s resume. Because it’s so common, people will just see it as a student putting their two terms of Java on their resume and don’t verify it. But if you were to put Haskell, a language that’s somewhat infamous for being challenging, on your resume, there’s a chance a dev will want to see if you really know Haskell.

Often with programming languages, there’s a concept that is absolutely key to a given language. With Haskell this concept is monads. In C, it’s pointers. In Rust, it’s ownership. If you don’t understand these core concepts, I wouldn’t recommend claiming you know the language.

With other languages, there’s sometimes a large surface area. C++ is a gigantic language. In that case, I’d try to specify what subset you know. Do you know modern C++ (C++11 and onward)? Do you know the original C with classes? Do you know modern JavaScript (ES6+)? Or just the basic function/var style? These are basically different languages so it helps to clarify.

Bare Minimum

With these ideas in mind, what’s the bare minimum before you can go around proclaiming you know XYZ lang?

To start, you should know the basic syntax, i.e. how to define a function, how to write a Hello World, etc. You should know the general categorization of the language, such as static vs dynamic typing, imperative vs functional, scripting vs systems, etc. You should be able to write a simple project in the language, perhaps a solid one page command line tool or a simple web server.

When people claim learning a language is easy, this is generally what they mean. It’s not hard to learn the syntax, categorization and enough semantics to write a simple program. Especially since most languages look similar, so syntax is easily learned. And if you stick to imperative languages, most of them have quite similar semantics.

However there are non-imperative languages, which is where the “learn a new language in a day” proclamation breaks down. To give a real life language analogy, romance languages are quite similar—it’s not terribly hard to learn French if you speak Italian or vice versa. But you can’t say that all languages are easy to pick up just because you’ve only encountered romance languages. Somewhere out there Chinese is lurking and it ain’t easy.

I highly recommend learning a different paradigm than imperative as it’ll teach you a completely new style and a new approach to programming. Functional programming is the classic alternative, but logic programming languages like Prolog are also very interesting.

If you’re at the bare minimum stage and applying for your first job, I belive it’s perfectly fine to put down that you know the language. You may stumble a bit in an interview, but that’s perfectly normal.

However if you’re beyond your first or second internship/job, you should be a little more strict with yourself on language proficiency. Perhaps put a caveat such as “(familiar)” or “(learning)” next to the language.

Getting Comfortable

After the bare minimum, there’s the stage where you get comfortable in a language. This is where you start to learn the idioms and ideas behind the language. You start to understand that there’s a particular way in which programmers of this language analyze and solve problems.

I faced this myself when I learned Ruby. I was at my first internship where I was tasked to write a simple scraper in Ruby. I learned Ruby’s syntax and semantics, then wrote a first draft quickly. I figured that past a few code refinements, the program should be ready for production. However when I showed it to my mentors, they quickly pointed out that I had written the code as if I were writing Python or Java in Ruby. For instance, I would have code such as:

if name == nil
  return nil

Which, while semantically correct, is not quite idiomatic. The idiomatic version, as pointed out to me, goes:

return nil if name.nil?

This may not seem like a huge difference. But idioms do matter. Every experienced Ruby programmer will understand both lines of code, but they’ll immediately recognize the idiomatic version, whereas with the first version they might take a second to scan. Not to mention the second version is shorter and elegant. It’s the difference between writing a sentence that, while technically correct, is awkwardly phrased and a little ungainly, versus writing a clear and concise sentence.

If I’m reading code that clearly does not follow the idioms of the language, I’m going to be a lot less confident in the author’s skill in this language, and therefore apply a lot more scrutiny.

A good place to pick up idioms are style guides. Plenty of big companies have style guides for certain languages. Google has a few. Some languages come with their own principles like Go, Python, and Kotlin.

I’d recommend that you be at this level when you apply for a full time job with a language on your resume. A properly trained developer should write idiomatic, well written code.


Another big factor is the philosophy behind the language. Almost every language has some guiding principle. These are different from code idioms in that they’re more vague and high level. Here’s a few examples:

  • Go: Fast, simple, stable
  • Rust: Fast and safe
  • Ruby: Fun and friendly
  • Python: Clear, simple, elegant

Some of these philosophies are exposed directly. Go has the delightful Go Proverbs. Python has the Zen of Python. Others are expressed more indirectly via the community or popular libraries.

I’d try to get a sense of a language’s philosophy. You don’t have to completely agree with it or follow it all the time. But it’s a good starting point and a great way to figure out the proper usecases of a language.

For instance, if I were writing a microservice that needed to be performant and I was working in a large company, where many people might need to touch this code. I’d consider using Go since it emphasizes speed, simple code and stability.

If I were writing a quick one off script that’s doing some boring string manipulation, maybe I’d use Ruby since it’s friendly, quick to use and makes even a boring task kinda fun!

Developing Opinions

A classic interview question posed by, I believe, Steve Yegge asks people for their favorite language, then their favorite and least favorite thing about it. I really like this question. A good sign that someone knows a language is when they can critique it in a well thought out, reasonable manner. By that I don’t mean the usual “OMG JS sucks so much!!!” that you find online. A proper critique of a language understands that every language has its strong areas and its weak areas. That every language is fundamentally a tool that can be used in certain situations and not in other situations. A proper critique combines the facets of using the language, understanding its idioms and internalizing its philosophy give an in depth, nuanced assessment.

If you find a language utterly perfect, or if you find it utterly irredeemable, you don’t really know the language.

Bjarne Stroustrup famously said: “There are only two kinds of languages: the ones people complain about and the ones nobody uses.” Use a language, find something to complain about.

Critiquing a language gets easier as you know more languages. You can compare the different paradigms, the different tooling setups, the different syntax. What you’ll inevitably find is that you probably don’t prefer one exact language. You prefer this element of Rust, that element of Go, this part of Ruby, etc. Which is bittersweet, since you’ll never get the perfect language.

Another important part of critiquing is that you start to carve out a subset of the language that you like and prefer. Perhaps you start to avoid multiple inheritance. Maybe you learn to not use var in JavaScript. Some people believe that learning a language entails learning all the features and neat little edgecases. Which isn’t wrong. The next step is to take all of that knowledge and select only the elements you like.

Diving Underneath

If you truly want to understand a language, you need to dive under the hood. What’s great is that practically every language has an open source implementation out there. Clone it, read the source code, and tinker with it.

You can learn a lot from implementation. Some languages are impossible to fully understand without understanding their implementation. I wouldn’t trust a C++ programmer who doesn’t understand object memory layouts or vtables. I wouldn’t trust a Java programmer who doesn’t understand garbage collection.

A lot of languages are implemented in themselves, a process called bootstrapping. Often times this implementation is a great example of a large scale codebase in this language.

However contributing to the implementation isn’t always the same as knowing the language. If the implementation is not in the language, then you’re not writing in the language. Plus compiler or interpreter writing is very different than normal development. You may end up with a different set of idioms and best practices.

What Language Should I Learn?

Yeah yeah yeah you say. Who cares about working on a compiler? I want to get hired. What languages should I learn to do that?

Well, anything really. As long as you’re learning a language and writing code in it, you’ll be hireable. If you learn more common languages like Python and Java, there’s no shortage of jobs that use both. If you learn something more obscure like Haskell or Rust, you’ll get some solid nerd cred from it. People worry too much about the right language. They worry that if they don’t learn the precise language that the company is hiring for, they won’t get the job. That’s not true at all. Unless the company is hiring for a senior position who will have major architecture control, they shouldn’t care that much about language.

I believe Joel Spolsky said something along the lines of if you hire a top notch programmer with no experience in Ruby for a job, in a year you’ll have a top notch programmer with a year’s experience in Ruby. If you hire a mediocre programmer with 4 years of Ruby, in a year you’ll have a mediocre programmer with 5 years of Ruby. Guess who’s gonna be the better hire?

Part of the problem is that people take job listings too seriously. If a job listing says it requires 2 years of Java for an entry level position, it’s not really asking for 2 years. It’s more a “it’d be nice if you had around 2 years”

Large companies often use several different languages anyways. Just apply and find out.

If you’re still unsatisfied with this response, and just need a damn answer, learn JavaScript. People complain endlessly about it but you can’t find a language with more usecases and more jobs. You can write mobile applications, front end, back end, even machine learning in JS. Plus modern JS is a quite nice language.

If that offends your sensibilities, then great, learn whatever language you believe is better.


Joining the language community can be a great way to learn a language’s idioms and philosophy. It can also help you choose your preferred language. Certain languages emphasize values such as niceness, clarity, stability, etc. This can matter more than even technical factors. After all these people will most likely be your coworkers and collaborators.

Depending on the language, the community may cluster in different locations. I know JavaScript people are pretty active on Twitter, Haskell has a decent IRC channel and most languages tend to have a subreddit. Check them out!

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